Simplyfied Cardiac Risk Assessment
Risk Factors
1. High-risk type of surgery
2. Ischemic heart disease
3. History of Congestive heart failure
4. History of Cerebrovascular disease
5. Insulin therapy for diabetes
6. Preoperative creatinine > 172.
UHN/MSH Medical Consult Service
Cardiology -
Risk Assessment

Grayburn & Hills
     Cardiac Events in Patients Undergoing Noncardiac Surgery
Ann Intern Med 2003;138:506-511